RELOADERS CORNER: Barrel Throat Erosion

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How long does a barrel last? About 5 seconds. KEEP READING

throat erosion
Well, it’s hotter than this, but it’s flame cutting over time and distance, and hotter for longer is the issue.

Glen Zediker

As is by now common enough in this column I write, ideas for topics very often come from questions that are emailed to me. As always, I figure that if someone has a question they want answered, then others might also like to know the answer. This question was about barrel life and, specifically, this fellow had been reading some materials on the interweb posted by some misinformed folks on the topic of bullet bearing area and its influence on barrel life: “Is it true that using 110 gr. vs. a 150 gr. .308 bullet will extend barrel life because of its reduced bore contact?”

NO. Not because of that.

However! The answer is also YES, but here’s why…

Wear in a barrel is virtually all due to throat erosion. The throat is the area in a barrel that extends from the case neck area in the chamber to maybe 4 inches farther forward. Erosion is the result of flame-cutting, which is hot gas from propellant consumption eating into the surface of the barrel steel. Same as a torch. There is very little wear caused from passage of the bullet through the bore, from the “sides” of the bullet, from friction or abrasion. The eroding flame cutting is at or near the base of the bullet.

When the propellant is consumed and creates the flame, the burn is most intense closer to the cartridge case neck. There are a few influences respecting more or less effect from this flame cutting. Primarily, it’s bullet weight. Time is now the main factor in the effect of the flame cutting. Slower acceleration means a longer time for the more intense flame to do its damage.

The slower the bullet starts, and the slower it moves, the more flame cuts in a smaller area for a longer time.

Bullet bearing area, therefore, has an influence on erosion, but that’s because it relates to acceleration — greater area, more drag, slower to move.

The amount of propellant, and the propellant nature, do also influence rate of erosion. Some assume that since there’s more propellant behind a lighter bullet that would create more erosion, and that’s true, but that is also not as great a factor as bullet weight. Other things equal, clearly, more propellant is going to cut steel more than less propellant. A “lighter” load will have a decidedly good effect on barrel life.

throat erosion
It’s heavier bullets that have the most influence on shortening barrel life.

Heavier bullets, without a doubt, are a greater influence than any other single factor. “We” (NRA High Power Rifle shooters) always supposed that it was the number of rapid-fire strings we ran that ate up barrels the most, but that was until we started using heavier bullets and found out in short order that our barrels weren’t lasting as long. That was moving from a 70gr. to an 80gr. bullet.

The “nature” of propellant is a loose reference to the individual flame temperatures associated with different ones. There have been some claims of greater barrel life from various propellants, but, generally, a double-base will produce higher flame temperature.

Even barrel twist rate plays a role, and, again, it’s related to resistance to movement — slower start in acceleration. Same goes for coated bullets: they have less resistance and move farther sooner, reducing the flame effect just a little. And, folks, it’s always “just a little.” It adds up though.

There are bullet design factors that influence erosion. A steady diet of flat-base bullets will extend barrel life. There’s been a belief for years and years that boat-tail bullets increase the rate of erosion because of the way the angled area deflects-directs the flame. And that is true! However, it’s not a reason not to use boat-tails, just a statement. We use boat-tails because they fly better on down the pike, and, ultimately that’s a welcome trade for a few less rounds. An odd and uncommon, but available, design, the “rebated boat-tail” sort of splits the difference and will, indeed, shoot better longer (they also tend to shoot better after a barrel throat is near the end of its life).

The effects or influences of barrel throat erosion are numerous, but the one that hurts accuracy the most is the steel surface damage. It gets rough, and that abrades the bullet jacket. The throat area also gets longer, and that’s why it’s referred to as “pushing” the throat.

The roughness can’t much be done about. There are abrasive treatments out there and I’ve had good luck with them. Abrasive coated bullets run through after each few hundred rounds can help to smooth the roughness, but then these also contribute their share to accelerated wear. I guess then it’s not so much a long life issue, but a quality of life issue. I do use these on my competition rifles.

lnl gage
Use the Hornady LNL O.A.L. gage to record and then track barrel throat wear. This isn’t technically a “throat erosion gage,” which do exist, but I’ve found it an easy and reliable way to keep up with an advancing throat. As the seating depth gets longer, it’s indicating how far the throat is advancing. Get one HERE 

Keeping in mind that the throat lengthens as erosion continues, using something like the Hornady LNL tool shown often in these pages can let bullet seating depth that touches the lands serve as a pretty good gage to determine the progress of erosion. On my race guns, I’ll pull the barrel when it’s +0.150 greater than it was new. Some say that’s excessively soon, and a commonly given figure from others in my circle is +0.250. One reason I pull sooner is that I notice a fall-off in accuracy sooner than that since I’m bound by a box magazine length for my overall cartridge length for magazine-fed rounds with shorter bullets, and I’m already starting with a fairly long throat (“Wylde” chamber cut). And another is because gas port erosion is having some effect on the bullet also by that number of rounds. Which now leads into the “big” question.

So, then, how long does a barrel last? Get out a calculator and multiply how many rounds you get before pulling a barrel by how long each bullet is in the barrel and barrels don’t really last very long at all! At full burn, maybe 4-6 seconds, some less, or a little more.

Another misgiven “fact” I see running rampant is associated with comparing stainless steel to chromemoly steel barrels for longevity. Stainless steel barrels will, yes, shoot their best for more rounds, but, chromemoly will shoot better for an overall longer time. Lemmeesplain: the difference is in the nature of the flame cutting effect on these two steels. Stainless tends to form cracks, looking like a dried up lakebed, while chromemoly tends to just get rough, like sandpaper. The cracks provide a little smoother surface for the bullet to run on (until they turn into something tantamount to a cheese grater). The thing is that when stainless stops shooting well it stops just like that. So, stainless will go another 10 to 15 percent more x-ring rounds, but chromemoly is liable to stay in the 10-ring at least that much longer than stainless steel.

throat erosion
Stainless steel barrels keep their “gilt-edge” accuracy for about 15% more rounds, but hit the wall head-on and in a big way when they reach their limit. Chromemoly steel tends to open up groups sooner, but also maintains “decent” accuracy for a longer time, by my experience — the groups open more slowly.

Do barrel coatings have an effect? Some. A little. I’ve yet to see one that made a significant difference, or at least commensurate with its extra expense. Chrome-lined barrels do, yes, tend to last longer (harder surface), but they also tend not to shoot as well, ever. Steel hardness factors, but most match barrels are made from pretty much the same stuff.

The preceding is a specially-adapted excerpt from Glen’s book Top-Grade Ammo. Available HERE at Midsouth Shooters Supply. Visit ZedikerPublishing.com for more information on the book itself, and also free article downloads.

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19 thoughts on “RELOADERS CORNER: Barrel Throat Erosion”

  1. So, for a 22CF barrel, lightweight (+/- 40gr) lead bullets pushed at 65-70% velocity of same weight jacketed bullets with a single base powder like 4895 should last a long, long time. Done.

  2. My Evolution USA ‘Grenada’ 16″ 1:8 twist barrel has 50K + downrange from 25 years of 3 Gun competition, target shooting, and Montana Prairie Dog hunting using 52 gr JHPs consistant to to Black Hills Match Ammo.

    When brand new, it shot 5 rnds @ 7/8″ at 200 yds. It now shoots just over 1″ at 200 yds and is still my most accurate AR-15. When I asked Edd Woslum with Evolution USA why it doesn’t wear out he stated that the .750 barrel was chrome lined.

    I haven’t ever looked into the throat erosion on this barrel but was told by several long range specialists that the barrel crown has much more to do in accuracy than any barrel erosion.

  3. Barrel life is relative a hunting rifle will last a lifetime. A top benchrest shooter may change his barrel after 800 rounds. I’ve seen AR’s still competitive with 10,000 rounds through them. It all depends on the precision required

  4. Do you have an opinion on cryotreatment? There are a few manufacturers that do it and it seems like they have better barrel life. Also, JP has there thermal dissipator that sheds heat like water off of a ducks back. Do you have any idea if it helps with barrel life?

  5. I have AR uppers with barrels that were / are worn to the point that I thought I could shoot better than they could provide accuracy. But that was 30 years ago and I still have them. Now well into my 7th decade and I find that most of those complete uppers, (that I still own because I can’t seem to get rid of anything), can now provide better accuracy than I can fully match with my present skills. It’s amazing how much better those old rigs have gotten as they sat around doing nothing. Maybe I’m missing something here. Oh well, I’ll think about that some other day, but for now I think I’ll just take little NAP! 🙂

    1. Don’t use those! We tried them on M14s and it’s a cool concept but the bullet jacket gets totally messed up because of the increasing twist…

  6. Okay, I get the flame cutting thing adjusted by how long the flame is active. Now my question is: How does this affect the rest of the barrel? Once past the throat, how badly is this flame cutting going to damage the rest of the rifling AND is this different for polygonal rifling or is it about the same? And does it affect pistols as well as rifles (I suspect it does) and since the bore is shorter is this erosion worse in a pistol than in a rifle?

  7. Good write up, and probably one of the best descriptive analysis of what’s going on in lay terms. Of all the factors the shooter can control, only the propellent, and its variables and the bullet, and its variable are the easiest to control when reloading.

  8. One of the “old” methods of reducing flame erosion was used in the OKH cartridges. Essentially, the primer fired down a “flash tube” about 2/3 the distance to the base of the bullet. That way the bullet started down the barrel without the whole mass of burning powder following behind it. Keith reported increased velocities of 100-200 fps with the same powder charge AND lower pressures.
    It would be interesting to see some cartridge manufacturer come up with a way of making this type brass today. The old method of threading a brass tube into an enlarged flash hole is not cost effective.

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